What Is CBD? Here’s The Complete Guide

Article by Joresa Blount, Forbes

What Is CBD? Here's The Complete Guide Joresa Blount Joresa Blount

Cannabidiol—CBD for short—is taking the world by storm. But why? With how stigmatized marijuana is in the United States, it seems surprising that so many people are latching onto it.

CBD is only one of 120 compounds called “cannabinoids” found in cannabis. Like its famous cousin, Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), CBD offers numerous health benefits—but it does not induce a high. As such, people are turning to CBD products to alleviate symptoms from physical ailments like pain and inflammation as well as mental ones like anxiety and depression.

Due to its relationship with marijuana, though, CBD is still not entirely accepted. Hopefully, this will change in the near future, because CBD’s popularity is only growing.

A History of CBD: Where Does it Come From?

People have reaped the health benefits of cannabis for thousands of years, even if they didn’t understand where its properties originated from. According to CBD Origin, the first documented instance of someone using cannabis for medical purposes is Chinese Emperor Sheng Nung in 2737 BCE when he drank a cannabis-infused tea to treat an assortment of maladies.

While people continued to use cannabis throughout the following centuries, modern medicine did not begin to take the plant seriously—at least, in documented cases in the US and Europe—until an Irish researcher in 1839 named William B. O’Shaughnessy published a highly controversial study that delved into cannabis’s health benefits.

O’Shaughnessy’s investigation paved the way for a British chemist, Robert S. Cahn, to discover an individual cannabinoid almost a hundred years later thanks to advancements in technology and research methods. He identified the structure of cannabinol (CBN) in 1940, and an American chemist named Roger Adams successfully isolated the first cannabinoid, CBD, two years later. Adam’s research also discovered THC.

Scientists continued to study cannabis in a health context, but they could not easily identify which molecule was responsible for which effect (such as reducing pain, inducing relaxation, etc.). In 1963 and 1964, Dr. Raphel Mechoulam successfully determined CBD’s and THC’s stereochemistry, respectively. Dr. Mechoulam’s research revealed which particular cannabis molecules were accountable for its various health and euphoric effects.

All of a sudden CBD products started showing up everywhere, with oils and gummies becoming the most popular products early on.

The Best Products

Not all CBD products work the same. One person may require a higher dosage than another, so it is important for consumers to know how much they need according to their symptoms (it’s common to start with a low dosage and gradually increase until reaching the desired effectiveness).

The kind of CBD product also makes a difference in how quickly it delivers its benefits. Individuals using CBD for mental disorders may prefer to ingest it as an oil or tincture. Gummies are also advantageous for this; people who need anxiety relief throughout the day can keep a bottle of gummies on their person and take them as needed and inconspicuously. For readers interested in which products are the best in terms of quality and taste, I compiled a comprehensive list of the best CBD gummies based on quality, ingredients, taste, and effectiveness accessible here. I’m a big fan of Verma Farms, due to their social conscious focus , tastiness, their high bar for the organic, pesticide-free hemp they use in their products.

People needing joint or muscle pain relief can take CBD as drops, but they can also opt for lotions and creams (which are popular for localized pain). Individuals should consult with their doctors or CBD experts to determine if oils, vaporizers, edibles, and other products are most suitable for their needs (such as shorter periods of relaxation).

But CBD has not only become a solution for humans, CBD for dogs is now one of the fastest growing trends among pet owners. I researched the best CBD products available for dogs today, with a focus on ingredient quality and anxiety relief. You can find the full list here.

Also important: a history of the endocannabinoid system

So, CBD and other cannabinoids can affect the body in numerous ways—but how? CBD (along with THC, CBN, and more) does not simply induce the effects it does because it has the properties to do so. Instead, it works with the body’s “endocannabinoid system,” which researchers have also found in other mammals.

Wait—endocannabinoid system? Yes, the human body has a system named after cannabis because it was discovered much later than the plant. Melissa Moore from Labroots reports that a government-funded project at the St. Louis University School of Medicine found that mammalian brain receptors have sites that respond to certain cannabinoids. As it turns out, these receptors are the brain’s most abundant kind of neurotransmitter receptor.

Various other researchers, such as teams lead by Lisa Matsuda at the National Institute of Mental Health, and Dr. Lumir Hanus and Dr. Willian Devane with Hebrew University in Jerusalem continued to learn more about how THC and other cannabinoids affect the brain, though rarely with human subjects. Labroots notes:

“In the pursuit of unearthing the metabolic pathways of phytocannabinoids and endocannabinoids, scientists came across and unknown molecular signaling systems within the body that is involved in regulating a broad range of biological functions. This system was named the endocannabinoid system (ECS).”

“Endo” means “inside,” while “phyto” refers to “plant.” The body’s endocannabinoid system performs a multitude of tasks, but its supposed ultimate purpose is to maintain homeostasis. Humans have two known (possibly more) kinds of cannabinoid receptors: CB1, which are located in the central nervous system; and CB2, which are located in the peripheral nervous system (extremities as opposed to brain and spinal cord), specialized immune system cells, and the digestive system.

The receptors part of the ECS inform the body when something is off-balance. For example, if a person is overheated, then the ECS plays a vital role in instructing sweat glands to begin producing sweat. Similarly, it tells the stomach to “growl” to indicate hunger when the body is low on energy.

How does CBD work?

The endocannabinoid system helps regulate a number of other essential functions apart from appetite, digestion, and temperature control. These functions include the immune system, inflammation, sleep, fertility, motor control, mood, memory, pain, and pleasurable sensations. In simple terms, when something is wrong, the ECS helps correct it with its network of endocannabinoids, enzymes that break them down, and receptors.

Therein lies the secret to how CBD products yield such incredible health benefits: ingesting external cannabinoids—namely, phytocannabinoids from the cannabis plant—gives the ECS a boost. It’s possible for the body to have an endocannabinoid deficiency, in which case phytocannabinoids are exceptionally advantageous. THC boasts a broad range of health benefits, but its intoxicant qualities create a “high” when it bonds with CB receptors. CBD, on the other hand, does have psychoactive properties, but it does not negatively alter a user’s state of mind while helping the body work toward homeostasis.

What do people use CBD for?

Because a great number of factors contribute to homeostasis, CBD is applicable to many ailments that disrupt the body’s balance. One of CBD’s more famous uses is for physical pain and inflammation, such as joint pain due to arthritis or multiple sclerosis. Similarly, people who use medical marijuana for cancer-related pain may opt for cannabidiol-heavy products instead of THC because it soothes their symptoms without getting them high.

It is common to hear that CBD is not psychoactive, which is misleading. CBD is not an intoxicant, but it does indeed have psychoactive properties—which is why countless people find it beneficial for temporarily alleviating anxiety and depression. Treating these illnesses usually entails pharmaceutical drugs, but untainted and well-made CBD products provide a more natural alternative (some medications can even be addictive, like benzodiazepines, but CBD is not well known to cause addiction). Some people also report taking CBD for other brain-related conditions, including PTSD and insomnia.

There are also many supposed benefits of CBD that people use it for, though such cases lack necessary research (especially in humans). Some studies, though, suggest that cannabidiol can be beneficial for heart health, reducing acne, preventing the spread of cancer, and preventing diabetes. It may also be useful as a substance abuse treatment.

It is important to note that most CBD research is conducted on animals, not humans, so evidence of CBD’s effectiveness often comes from personal anecdotes. The only FDA-approved CBD product in the United States is Epidiolex, which is useful for treating two forms of pediatric epilepsy. While new research is encouraging and personal stories are convincing, keep in mind that CBD’ effects in humans are still under-explored. CBD boasts many health benefits, but it is not an outright cure for any ailment and is only intended to relieve symptoms.

How did CBD become so popular?

It is difficult to pinpoint a moment in time when CBD boomed the way it has. People have been using marijuana to treat pain for a long time, but with marijuana stigmatized the way it is, non-users have been hesitant to try it. It is likely that people nervous to try THC for its health benefits were more ready to accept CBD because it has the advantage of not inducing a high and its marketability as a natural product.

Cannabis-oriented research firm Brightfield Group reports that CBD sales are expected to exceed $5 billion by the end of 2019, which is a 706 percent increase from 2018. Brightfield Group projects that the CBD industry’s total market value could reach as much as $23.7 billion by 2023.

CBD products are also slightly more legal than marijuana for smoking or ingesting. Marijuana is only one kind of cannabis—hemp is another, which has lower THC content. At the end of 2018, the United States passed the Farm Bill, which legalized industrial hemp. As such, CBD products derived from hemp, not marijuana, is supposedly legal at a federal level as long as they contain equal to or less than .3 percent THC. Individual states, however, are free to make their own laws regarding CBD.

While CBD is in a bit of a legal gray zone, cannabis companies have taken advantage of the fact that it is slightly more legal than marijuana. CBD products now come in all sorts of forms: oils, tinctures, sprays, lotions, edibles, bath bombs, gummies, vapes, and more. CBD is more accessible than it has ever been before, and a rapidly growing number of people are listening to their friends’ testaments and trying it for themselves.

There is also something to be said for CBD’s “newness.” Though people have used cannabis for medicinal purposes for centuries, the identification of cannabidiol as a particular molecule from an often stigmatized plant makes CBD sort of a novelty. In a society where people have understandably lost faith in mainstream healthcare, cannabidiol is separate from big pharma and offers a great deal of promise.

Is CBD just that, though? A novelty? Hopefully and likely not, according to Dr. Esther Blessing from the New York University School of Medicine (Dr. Blessing is coordinating a study regarding treating PTSD and alcohol use disorder with CBD). She tells the New York Times:

“CBD is the most promising drug that has come out for neuropsychiatric diseases in the last 50 years. The reason it is so promising is that it has a unique combination of safety and effectiveness across a very broad range of conditions.”

Despite CBD’s newness to the modern medical landscape—and the fact that cannabis’s legal status makes research difficult in humans—many people feel inclined to trust it. Bear in mind that known side effects, however, include vomiting, nausea, drowsiness, diarrhea, increased anxiety, and changes in mood and appetite. While CBD does appear to be more or less safe, interested individuals should consult with their doctors before adding CBD to their diets.

Celebrities who have publicly endorsed CBD

Many celebrities have also caught wind of the CBD boom. Mandy Moore announced on the red carpet before a Golden Globes event that she was experimenting with CBD for her feet. Dr. Sanjay Gupta voiced his interest in CBD on The Dr. Oz Show. Busy Philipps noted that she is a strong proponent of CBD and THC gummies. Tom Hanks even said:

“The first time I ever tried CBD was to help soothe my anxiety. I was fed up with taking various pills to try and make me ‘better’… It wasn’t how I wanted to live my life anymore. So I gave CBD oil a try. It was a huge relief for me to feel like myself, yet the edge was gone. A bonus to the whole thing was the relief from various aches and pains I have. Especially arthritis in my knees. It immediately alleviated 90 percent of my pain.”

Besides advocacy, other celebrities have funded research or even started their own CBD businesses. Whoopi Goldberg co-founded a CBD brand named Whoopi & Maya, which emphasizes using cannabidiol for menstrual cramps (for which there is precious little relief on the market). Montel Williams, who was diagnosed with MS in 1999, partnered with Cura Cannabis to launch his own CBD company called Lenitiv.

CBD is also known to alleviate symptoms from Parkinson’s disease, in which Michael J. Fox was diagnosed in 1991. His foundation, the Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson’s Research, has conducted significant research into helping Parkinson’s patients using marijuana and CBD.

Read the full article here.

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